L

 

 

11587 Timeout
The engine hours at the start of the most recent 11587 engine hour timeout. ( Detroit )

11587 Timeout
The total duration of all 11587 timeouts, in HH:MM:SS . Duration format. ( Detroit )

LADDER

The main track of a yard from which individual tracks lead off. This track is also called a lead track.

 

LADEN OR LADING

That which constitutes a full load, the freight in a vehicle.

 

LANDAU BAR

A decorative, S-shaped ornament located on the :C: pillar surface. Originally a functional S-curved hinge that allowed the rear part of the roof of a horse-drawn carriage to be folded down.

 

LANDING GEAR

A slang term for the support legs that hold up the front end of a semi trailer when it is disconnected from a tractor. See dolly.

 

LANDING SCARS

Any gouge, scrape, furrow, etc. Indicating the landing point of a vehicle after a flip or vault

 

LANE LINE

A line separating two lanes of traffic traveling in the same direction.

 

LAP WELD

Usually refers to resistance spot welding on overlapping flanges.

 

LAST CONTACT

The final touching of objects in a collision before separation; the time and place on a traffic unit or trafficway where this touching occurs. If colliding objects do not separate, there is no last contact.


Last Stop
Last Stop occurs when the vehicle comes to a stop for 15 seconds or longer. ( Detroit )

LATCH (switch stand)

A device for catching and holding the lever of a switch stand in position; also called a switcher keeper.

 

LATERAL ACCELERATION

The sideward acceleration of a vehicle in a horizontal plane and perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the vehicle. The component of the vector acceleration of a point in the vehicle perpendicular to the vehicle x-axis and parallel to the road plane.

 

LATERAL AXIS

The lateral axis is the axis that extends from the left to the right and through the center of mass of a vehicle The lateral axis is perpendicular to the longitudinal axis The lateral axis is also known as the Pitch axis Rotation about the lateral axis is considered to be in a clockwise direction when the front of the vehicle initially begins rotation in a downward direction.

 

LATERAL DISTANCE

(dlat): A displacement perpendicular to the direction of travel.

 

LATERAL FORCE

The lateral direction with respect to a vehicle is the sideways direction The lateral direction is parallel to the y-axis. The lateral force is that portion of the friction force on the tires which is directed perpendicular to the vehicle centerline.

 

LATERAL MOTION

The motion, crosswise of the track, of all car parts except the wheels and axles. The lateral motion, or end play, results from the flexibility which must be provided in truck structure in order to permit easy and safe negotiation of track curves.

 

LATERAL VELOCITY

lateral velocity of a point in the vehicle is the component of the vector velocity perpendicular to the x-axis and parallel to the road plane.

 

LAWFUL RATE

A rate published in conformity with the provisions of the regulatory law and which does not violate any other provisions of such law.

 

LAYDOWN SIDE FRAME

An automatic single tool system used to manufacture the body side assembly employing a carry-and-drop shuttle, automatic part locating and clamping, and spot welding performed with robots.

 

LAYOVER

To take a rest period of eight or more hours before continuing trip, or any extended off-duty period away from the home terminal.

 

LAYOVER TIME

The non-working time that a road driver spends away from his home terminal before being dispatched to some other destination.

 

LEAD TRACK

An extended track connecting either end of a yard with main track.

 

LEAD-ACID BATTERY

A commonly used automotive battery in which the active materials are lead, lead peroxide, and a solution of sulfuric acid. See storage battery.

 

LEAF SPRING

A leaf spring is an assembly of one or more long, thin, pieces of flat or slightly curved material (usually steel) The spring is capable of deforming in a direction perpendicular to the plane of the leaves A leaf spring develops internal forces primarily owing to bending deformations of the material.

 

LEAN

A deviation from the vertical plane (along the x axis) of a motorcycle. The measurement of this deviation is expressed in degrees. The angle of the lean is 0 degrees when the motorcycle is in an upright position. Sometimes referred to as the roll angle.

 

LESS THAN CAR / TRAILER LOAD

The quantity of freight less than required for the application of a full car / trailer rate.

 

LESS THAN CAR / TRAILER LOAD RATE

A rate applicably to a less than full load shipment.

 

LEVEL I

Basic spec of vehicle customer definition.

 

LEVEL II

Engraving spec detail requirement (system test).

 

LEVEL III

Component/Material Spec.

 

LEVELS OF ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION:

1. Reporting; 2. At scene extra data collection; 3. Technical follow up; 4. Professional reconstruction; 5. Cause analysis

 

LEVER ARM

The perpendicular distance from the axis of rotation to the line of action of the force. Lever arm is also known as moment arm.

 

LEVERAGE

This mechanical advantage obtained by use of a lever or combination of levers.

 

LIFT

Lift is that force owing to a flow of a fluid around a body which acts perpendicular to the flow For example, if a wind is directed against the front of vehicle, then one of the forces it exerts on the vehicle acts upward--it tends to "lift" the vehicle off the ground That force is called the "Lift".

 

LIFTOVER HEIGHT

The height to which luggage or other cargo must be lifted to stow in trunk or rear compartment.

 

LIGHT ENGINE

An engine moving without caboose or cars attached.

 

LIGHT TRUCK AND VAN

(LTV) includes pickups, vans, and truck based station wagons with GVW less than 10,000 pounds.

 

LIGHT WEIGHT

The weight of an empty freight car.

 

LIGHTER

A flat bottom boat usually used in inland waterways.

 

LIGHTERAGE LIMITS

The limits of the area within which freight is handled by lighters or barges under certain lightering charges, rules and regulations.

 

LIGHTERING

The hauling of freight on lighters or barges.

 

LIMITED INVESTIGATION

Any collision investigated by the team in which the teams investigation report is supplemental to an original report.

 

LIMITED SPEED

Not exceeding 45 miles per hour.

 

LIMITED-SLIP DIFFERENTIAL

Mechanical action which resists the free working of an ordinary differential, thus distributing a greater torque to the slower-turning wheel or axle.

 

LINE DIES

Operations which follow the draw operations consisting of various combinations of spanking, trimming, forming, flanging and/or piercing. May also refer to the tooling for parts that do not require a draw die.

 

LINE FILL

Assembly plant fill lines with next production bodies prior to shut down (utilizing advance metal)

 

LINE HAUL

The movement of freight between major cities or terminals. Line haul operations do not include pick-ups or deliveries. Line haul service is also commonly referred to as over-the-road (abbreviated OTR) operations or "runs".

 

LINE OF IMPACT

She line of impact is the normal which is common to two surfaces in contact "Normal" in this context means perpendicular to another line, or at right angles to it

 

LINEAR

Having one dimension and relating to straight lines

 

LINEAR ACCELERATION

Linear acceleration is the acceleration (whether uniform or non uniform) of a body (or vehicle) which moves in a straight line.

 

LINEAR AND ANGULAR MEASUREMENTS

Changes in position can be described in two ways. They can be described with reference to three directions or planes at right angles to each other; x, y, and z. For example, a car going down a straight road is moving in the x direction. If it turns towards the edge of the road, it moves in the y direction. If it goes over a hump back bridge it moves upward in the z direction. Alternatively changes in position can be defined by a radius from a fixed point and the angle of that radius from a fixed reference. Angular measurements are most useful in describing attitudes or changes in positions of objects which have finite size such as a car or an occupant. For example, the spinning of a car can be described in terms of the linear velocity of its center of gravity moving down the highway, and the rotation of the car about its center of gravity in terms of angular displacement measured in degrees, and angular velocity measured in degrees (or radians) per second. (2 radians equal 360 degrees, so 1 radian equals 57.3 degrees.)

 

LINEAR MOMENTUM

A vector quantity which is the product of a body's mass (m) and its velocity. The direction is that of the velocity. The unit of momentum is the slug ft/sec.

 

LINKAGE

System of links or levers joined to transmit motion or force.

 

LIP MOLDING

A bright molding applied to the sheet metal around the edge of a wheel opening.

 

LIQUID DEBRIS

Scattered liquids from a vehicle or its cargo; spatter, dribble, puddle, runoff and soak-in.

 

LIVE AXLE

Same as drive axle or powered axle.

 

LIVE STOCK CAR

A special freight car for handling of live stock animals.

 

LIVESTOCK BODY

Truck or trailer designed for the transportation of farm animals.


Load
The percentage of power output where 0% is idle and 100% is full load in gear. ( Detroit )

LOAD DISTRIBUTION

Distribution of load on truck or trailer chassis.

 

LOAD FLOOR

The cargo bearing floor in wagon and folding second seat style bodies.

 

LOAD LIMIT

The maximum load in pounds which the car or trailer is designed to carry.

 

LOAD RANGE

A letter designation that indicates the load permissible on the tire.

 

LOADED POSITION

Car height with 750-pound load.

 

LOADED RADIUS

(R ) is the distance from the center of tire contact to the wheel center measured in the wheel plane.

 

LOCAL RATE

A rate applying between stations located on the same railroad or carrier.

 

LOCAL WAY BILL

A way bill covering the movement of freight over a single carrier.

 

LOCK RING

In three-piece wheel rims, the lock ring holds the side ring firmly on the rim base.

 

LOCKED WHEEL SKID MARK

A skid mark left by a braked, non-rotating wheel sliding in contact with the road surface.

 

LOCKING CLIP

A device used in conjunction with a child car seat to restrict the vehicle seat belt from slipping through the buckle.

 

LOCOMOTIVE

See engine.

 

LOG BODY

Truck or trailer body designed for the transportation of long items. See pole trailer.

 

LOG BOOK

Drivers' book records of hours, routes, etc. Required by I.C.C.

 

LONG TON

2,240 pounds. Also called gross ton.

 

LONGER COMBINATION

Usually refers to double 40-foot trailers or triple 27-foot trailers coupled to tractor.

 

LONGITUDINAL

Longitudinal means parallel to the longitudinal center line of the vehicle.

 

LONGITUDINAL ACCELERATION

The component of the vector acceleration of a point in the vehicle in the x-direction.

 

LONGITUDINAL AXIS

The axis extending from the rear to the front and through the center of mass of an object The longitudinal axis of a motor vehicle will be parallel to its sides. For use in the general description of vehicle dynamics, the longitudinal axis may be considered the roll axis of the vehicle. Rotation to the drivers right, about the longitudinal axis, is considered to be clockwise rotation.

 

LONGITUDINAL FORCE COEFFICIENT

(C x) is based on the aerodynamic force acting on the vehicle in the x direction.

 

LONGITUDINAL SLIP

(percent slip) The ratio of the longitudinal slip velocity to the spin velocity of the free straight-rolling tire expressed as a percentage. NOTE: This quantity should not be confused with the slip number that frequently appears in kinematic analysis of tires in which the spin velocity appears in the denominator.

 

LONGITUDINAL SLIP VELOCITY

The difference between the spin velocity of the driven or braked tire and the spin velocity of the straight free-rolling tire. Both spin velocities are measured at the same linear velocity at the wheel center in the X' direction. A positive value results from driving torque.

 

LONGITUDINAL VELOCITY

(u) of a point in the vehicle is the component of the vector velocity in the x-direction.

 

LORRY

A small four wheel push car used in railroad construction and maintenance work for moving rails, ties, etc.

 

LOUVER

A fin that controls the flow of air through and opening in cab, hood radiator sheet, or compartment for the purpose of ventilating. May also be non-functional in a simulated opening.

 

LOW BED

An open trailer with drop frame construction used pet merrily to haul heavy equipment. Also known as flat bed or low boy.

 

LOW BOY

See low bed.

 

LOW CAB FORWARD

A tractor with the cab mounted forward of the engine to allow cab entry height to be reduced for ease of entry and exit.

 

LOW RAIL

The inner rail of a curve which is maintained at grade while the opposite or outer rail is elevated.

 

LOW SIDE GONDOLA

A gondola car with sides and ends thirty six inches high or less.

 

LOW-AIR-WARNING DEVICE

Any mechanical means of warning a truck driver that his vehicle is not maintaining the proper amount of air pressure needed to operate the brakes, etc. Can be a buzzer, a flashing red light on the instrument panel, or a small red metal flag that drops into the driver's line of vision.

 

LOWER BACK PANEL

Portion of body sheet metal below rear edge of decklid.

 

LOW-PRESSURE INDICATOR

A unit or combination of units that provides a visible or audible warning signal whenever the system pressure is below a predetermined value.

 

LOW-PROFILE RADIAL

Aspect ratio of 80 (or 75) or less.

 

LPG

Liquefied petroleum gas, used as engine fuel.

 

LUMBER BODY

Platform truck or trailer body with rollers designed for the transportation of lumber.

 

LUMINANCE

The state or quality of being luminous. Also called luminosity, the quality or condition of radiating or reflecting light.

 

 

References

Detroit Diesel

Caterpillar User's Manual