C

 

 

C.G.

Center of gravity or point within the length and width of a vehicle about which all the vehicle weight is balanced.

 

C/O

Carryover

 

CA

Distance from back of cab to centerline of rear axle.

 

CAB

The space in a locomotive "A" unit containing the operating controls and providing shelter and seats for the engine crew.

 

CAB CARD

Uniform Identification Cab Card in which the various State operating authorities and permit stamps are affixed. Called bingo card by drivers.

 

CAB OVER ENGINE CHASSIS

A cab over chassis is very short compared to a conventional or cab forward chassis. From a side view the driver position would be atop or forward of the entwine position and engine service is achieved by tilting the cab to expose the engine.

 

CAB SIGNAL

1) A device located in the cab of the locomotive which indicates the condition of the track ahead, whether clear or occupied, by a display of signals. 2) When equipped with automatic train stop... when a cab signal indication requires a speed reduction and the train is permitted to proceed at a higher speed, an audible warning will sound. If the engineer does not respond within a time limit by reducing power and making a service brake application, the train will automatically stop.

 

CAB-ALONGSIDE-ENGINE

A tractor in which the cab is located alongside the engine (abbreviated CAE). Same as cab-beside-engine.

 

CAB-BEHIND-ENGINE

A tractor on which the cab is located behind the engine a conventional cab.

 

CAB-BESIDE-ENGINE

Same as cab-alongside-engine (abbreviated CBE).

 

CABIN

An automotive interior compartment.

 

CABOOSE

A car which is attached to the rear of freight train for the accommodation of the conductor and trainmen as office and quarters while in transit. Sometimes called cabin car, way car, hack, shanty, or crummy.

 

CAD

Computer Aided Drafting (or Drawing)

 

CAFE RACER

A motorcycle with a high performance output and a aerodynamically designed chassis for road racing.

 

CALIPER

A caliper as applied to disc brakes is the non rotational component of a disc brake that straddles the disc and contains the hydraulic components that force the frictional material against the brake disc.

 

CALL STATION

A person or company that agrees to transact business for a trucking company in a given location, generally a location where terminal facilities are not ,justified. Call station handles calls from shippers but usually performs no freight handling function. See agent

 

CALLER

An employee who notifies train and engine crews and other employee to report for duty.

 

CAM DIE

A means of translating the normal vertical motion of a die into horizontal or angular motion through the use of wedges.

 

CAMBER

Camber is the angle between the plane of the tire and true vertical.

 

CAMBER ANGLE

The inclination of the wheel plane to the vertical. It is considered positive when the wheel leans outward at the top and negative when it leans inward.

 

CAMEL BACK BODY

Truck body with floor curving downward at the rear.

 

CAMERA-CASE

A textured, leather-like finish used in car interiors, as on a glove box door. The name is derived from the dark-grained leather used on expensive cameras.

 

"CAN'T MAKE" NOTIFICATION

A "Can't Make" Notification is initiated by Preproduction Planning and Control (BAO) for any part(s) released by Engineering which will not be available for the desired effective point (Job No. 1, mandated date or added starter) at the Assembly plant or to support required functional or training builds. This form is sent to Engineering for direction as to substitution, rework or omission for the specified units or for the authorization of premium funds for tooling, overtime or transportation to support the desired effective points. The Program Timing activity routes the "Can't Make" to the affected Engineering Supervisor for response and follows the response to assure promptness (48-hour response requirement) and appropriateness of direction and obtains Executive approval and concurrence of the "Timing" Manager, finally providing expedient delivery to BAO Preproduction.

 

CAPACITY (freight car)

The normal load in pounds, cubic feet in gallons, which the car is designed to carry. These figures are stenciled on the sides of cars.

 

CAPS

Cost per Average Pound Saved

 

CAR

Every motor vehicle, except motorcycle and motor driven cycles, designed for carrying 10 passengers or less and used for the transportation or persons.

 

CAR DISTRIBUTOR

A individual who is assigned the responsibility of distributing empty freight cars.

 

CAR DUMPER

A device for quick unloading of bulk material such as coal or grain. After being clasped to the rail the car is tilted or rolled to discharge the lading.

 

CAR FLOAT

A large flat-bottom boat equipped with tracks on which railroad cars are moved in inland waterways.

 

CAR KNOCKER

(slang) Car inspector.

 

CAR LINE

A name denoting a family of vehicles within a make which has a degree of commonalty in construction such as body, chassis, etc.

 

CAR LINING

Material placed on the walls of a car for the protection of goods.

 

CAR MILE

The movement of a car the distance of one mile. A term used in statistical data.

 

CAR STOP

A device for stopping motion of a car by engaging the wheels, as distinguished from a bumping post which arrests motion upon contact with the coupler of a car. See bumping post.

 

CARBON MONOXIDE (C0)

A colorless, odorless, highly poisonous gas, produced by the incomplete combustion of fuel. It is usually expelled by the exhaust system.

 

CARBURETOR

That part of the gas engine fuel system where gasoline and air are mixed in controlled proportions.

 

CARD BOARD

A small board secured to the outside of a freight car, on which are tacked cards giving shipping directions or warning of dangerous lading etc.

 

CARD RACK

A small receptacle on the outside of a freight car to receive cards giving shipping directions.

 

CARDAN UNIVERSAL JOINT

A non-constant universal joint consisting of two yokes joined by a cross.

 

CARGO

The freight carried by a vehicle.

 

CARGO BARRIER

The panel between the luggage compartment and the passenger compartment at the rear of the rear seat.

 

CARLOAD

The quantity of freight required for the application of a carload rate.

 

CARLOAD RATE

A rate applicable to a car load quantity of freight.

 

CARRIER

See motor carrier.

 

CARRIER'S LIEN

Right of a motor carrier to retain property which ft has transported as security for the collect freight charges.

 

CARRYING TRUCK

Used for the transportation of the completely welded body through subsequent operations, metal finish, paint and trim.

 

CARTAGE

The charge made for hauling freight.

 

CARTAGE ALLOWANCE:

See allowance.

 

CASE

A shell used to hold molds in their proper alignment.

 

CASE HARDEN

Hardening of outer layer of an iron-base alloy through heat treatment.

 

CASING

The tire structure, excepting tread and sidewall rubber.

 

CAST WHEEL

A casting that includes the hub and spokes at the end of which are studs, clamps and nuts that are used to support the rim.

 

CASTER

Amount of tilt in fore and aft axis of axle beam.

 

CASTER

Forward (or rearward) inclination of kingpin or support arm of wheel ; amount of tilt in axle beam.

 

CASTER ANGLE

The angle in side elevation between the steering axis and the vertical. It is considered positive when the steering axis is inclined rearward (in the upward direction) and negative when the steering axis is inclined forward.

 

CASTER OFFSET

The distance in side elevation between the point where the steering axis intersects the ground, and the center of tire contact. The offset is considered positive when the intersection point is forward of the tire contact center and negative when it is rearward.

 

CASTING

The shape formed by pouring or spraying a plastic or liquid substance into a mold and letting the material harden. Also used to describe the process itself.

CATENARY

A system of wires suspended between poles and bridges supporting over contact wires normally energized at 11,000 volts.

CATERPILLAR ELECTRONIC TECHNICIAN (CAT ET)

A diagnostic tool software program for a personal computer (PC). Designed to replace the ECAP service tool for Caterpillar diesel engines. (CAT)

CAT ET

The acronym for Caterpillar Electronic Technician Software. (CAT)

CATWALK

A depressed surface, usually between a fender and a raised area of the hood or deck.

 

CAUSE

The combination of simultaneous and sequential factors without any one of which the result could not have occurred. The result might be a motor-vehicle traffic accident, or a successful trip.

 

CAUSE ANALYSIS

The effort to determine from whatever information is available, including results of accident reconstruction, why the accident occurred, that is, the complete combination of circumstances that caused the highway transportation system to break down at the time and place of the accident. Cause analysis has been referred to as determining "indirect" or "condition" causes. Level 5 of accident investigation.

 

CCO

Climate Control Operations

 

CD

1) Master locating coordination drawing. 2) Casting Division

 

CEMENT

See Portland cement concrete.

 

CENTER DUMP CAR

A car which will discharge its entire load between the rails, or wheels.

 

CENTER LINE

The plane passing through the center of a headlight, wheel or the vehicle itself.

 

CENTER OF GRAVITY

That point at which the entire weight of an object may be considered concentrated; that is, the line of action of the body's weight passes through the center of gravity.

 

CENTER OF MASS

The single point within a body that responds and is displaced in the same manner as a point mass would respond and be displaced when subjected to the same external forces. The force (f) is the product of the mass (m) and the acceleration (Acm) of the center of mass. Due to the uniform gravitational acceleration (g) acting on the body, the center of mass and the center of gravity coincide.

 

CENTER OF PARALLEL WHEEL MOTION

The center of curvature of the path along which each of a pair of wheel centers moves in a longitudinal vertical plane relative to the sprung mass when both wheels are equally displaced.

 

CENTER OF TIRE CONTACT

The intersection of the wheel plane and the vertical projection of the spin axis of the wheel onto the road plane.

 

CENTER PILLAR

Box construction used on four-door bodies forming the front door body lock pillar and rear door body hinge pillar.

 

CENTER PIN OR KING BOLT

A large bolt which passes through the center plates on the body bolster and truck bolster. The truck turns about the bolt, but the stress is taken by the center plates. It is, therefore, a mere pin and not a bolt in the usual sense.

 

CENTER PLATE

One of a pair of plates which fit one onto the other and which support the car body on the trucks, allowing them to turn freely under the car. The center pin or King bolt passes through both, but does not really serve as a pivot. The male or body center plate is attached to the under side of the body bolster. The female or truck center plate is attached to the top side of the truck bolster.

 

CENTER SILL

The center longitudinal member of the under frame of a car which forms, as it were, the back bone of the under frame and transmits most of the buffing shocks, from one end of the car to the other. Freight with cushioned under frames use a special type of floating center sill construction. See cushion under frame.

 

CENTERED FORCE

A centered force is directed through the center of gravity of a vehicle. The term refers to forces generated by collision.

 

CENTERED THRUST

A force directed toward the center of a mass of the vehicle or other object in collision.

 

CENTIMETER (CM)

A metric measuring unit equal to approximately 0.390 inches.

 

CENTRAL COLLISION

A collision between two vehicles or vehicle and a fixed object in which the principle force is directed essentially through the centers of mass of the involved vehicles.

 

CENTRIFUGAL CASTER

The unbalance moment about the steering axis produced by a lateral acceleration equal to gravity acting at the combined center of gravity of all the steerable parts. It is considered positive if the combined center of gravity is forward of the steering axis and negative if rearward of the steering axis.

 

CENTRIFUGAL FORCE

The force of a body in motion which tends to keep it continuing in the same direction rather than following a curved path.

 

CENTRIFUGAL SKID MARK

See yaw mark. Centrifugal Skid is a tire mark left by a rotating wheel that is slipping sideways parallel to its axle. The skid mark can vary in width from narrow band to a wide mark depending on the attitude of the vehicle. The skid mark will normally have striation marks perpendicular or oblique to the direction of the mark and can be left by one or more tires and will always be in a curve or arc. Also referred to as yaw mark, critical speed scuffs ant side slip marks.

 

CENTRIPETAL ACCELERATION

Centripetal acceleration is an acceleration toward the center of a circle. It is present whenever an object (or vehicle) proceeds along a circular path. If an object proceeds along a curved path which is not a circle there exists the same centripetal acceleration that would be present if the body were moving on the circle which best fits the curve. Chain binders A device used to remove slack from chains used to tie down loads.

 

CEO

Chassis Engineering Office

 

CERTIFICATE OF PUBLIC CONVENIENCE AND NECESSITY

Authority or certificate granted by the Interstate Commerce Commission to common carriers by railroad, motor vehicle, and water to operate in interstate commerce.

 

CERTIFICATE OF WEIGHT

An authoritative statement of the weight of a shipment prepared by a weigh master.

 

CETANE NUMBER

Rating applied to ignition properties of diesel fuel the higher the number, the better the ignition quality. See octane number.

 

CHAIN - REACTION ACCIDENT

A series of two or more traffic accidents occurring one after another in the same vicinity in such a manner that, after one accident has reached a stabilized accident situation, its results contribute to the occurrence of a subsequent traffic accident. If there is no clear indication that a stabilized accident situation is reached, the series of events is considered to be a single accident, although possibly a multi unit accident.

 

CHAIN DRIVE

Rear axle driven by means of chain belt.

 

CHAMFER

A flat surface beveled or angled off from an adjacent surface.

 

CHANGE IN VELOCITY

One way if describing the severity of a collision is to assess the change in velocity which occurs. Two cars of equal weight each traveling at 30 m.p.h. having a head-on collision will each have a change in velocity (delta V) of 30 m.p.h., ignoring any small amount of rebound which may occur. Similarly, a car hitting a rigid barrier at 30 m.p.h. will have a change in velocity of 30 m.p.h., if rebound is ignored. Change in velocity can also be used as an assessment of the severity of a blow to the human frame. Thus contracts by occupants in a frontal collision can be analyzed in terms of localized changes in velocity separately for the head, the chest and the knees making specific contacts with various interior structures.

 

CHANNEL ROCKER

Frame-body design where the chassis frame fits inside of an open rocker panel.

 

CHARACTER LINE

A line on the basic shape, resulting in an intersection of planes and sometimes ornamented.

 

CHARACTERISTIC SPEED

That forward speed for an understeer vehicle at which the steering sensitivity at zero lateral acceleration trim is one-half the steering sensitivity of a neutral steer vehicle.

 

CHARGE AIR COOLING

The cooling of engine intake air after compression by turbocharger.

 

CHARGE IT

(Slang) Allow compressed air to flow into semi-trailer lines.

 

CHASING

Steering a tractor while backing so as to cause the tractor to follow (i.e.; "chase") along the path of the trailer. Combines with "jacking" to allow the trailer to be maneuvered along the prescribed path. See ,jacking.

 

CHASSIS

The under part of an automobile, consisting of the frame with axles, brakes, wheels, engine, transmission driveline and exhaust system.

 

CHASSIS COMPONENT AND BODY PACKAGE LAYOUTS

Layouts which identify package constraints and depict chassis components in their proposed environments. (This is the control point for Mechanical Prototype availability.) Chassis drawn to LH side; body drawn to RH side.

 

CHEAT

To exaggerate an element in a drawing or rendering.

 

CHECK A BLOCK

Seal totally squashed and door doesn't close.

 

CHECK VALVE

Device to automatically isolate one part of air brake system from another. A one-way check valve provides free air flow in one direction only. A two-way check valve permits actuation of the brake system by either of two brake application valves

 

CHECKING FIXTURE

A tool used to qualify the accuracy of a production stamping. Also used extensively in die tryout to indicate necessary tool corrections.

 

CHEST LOADS

The accelerative forces (measured in "G's" or "S.I.") which are applied to the center of gravity of the upper thorax.

 

CHILD CAR SEAT

A portable seat placed in a vehicle to provide restraint for small children and infants.

 

CHIP

A short, deep gouge; a hole in pavement made by a strong, sharp, pointed metal object under great pressure, usually without striations.

 

CHMSL

Center High Mounted Stop Light

 

CHOP

A broad, shallow gouge, even and regular on the deeper side and terminating in scratches and striations on the opposite, shallower side; a depression in pavement made by strong, sharp metal edge moving sidewise under heavy pressure.

 

CHOPPER

A customized motorcycle in which the front wheel has been "chopped off" and extended forward.

 

CHORD

(c): A line drawn between two points on the circumference of a circle. A chord is never greater than the diameter of a circle of which the arc is a part.

 

CIRCUIT (ELECTRICAL)

A path through which electrical current can flow. A closed circuit provides a continuous, unbroken path from a current source through various current consuming devices back to the source (or a common ground;). An open circuit occurs when the current path is interrupted or broken either by an open switch or relay or by a broken wire or loose connection. A short circuit occurs when a damaged or loose wire accidentally touches another damaged wire or some other conductive material. Current then takes a "short cut" to ground, bypassing part of its normal path. See grounded circuit,

 

CIRCUIT BREAKER

A device that automatically interrupts the flow of an electric current when the current becomes excessive.

 

CIRCUITOUS ROUTE

An indirect route.

 

CIRCUS LOADING

A means of loading highway trailers by moving them over the ends of the cars.

 

CKD

Completely Knocked down, or disassembled.

 

CLADDING

Large injection molded, plastic part attached to lower section of door for protection and design.

 

CLAIM

(1) A demand for payment to compensate for freight damage that is supposed to have occurred while the cargo was in the hands of the carrier (2) A demand for refund of an overcharge. See overcharge.

 

CLAIM AGENT

An employee who adjusts or settles claims made against his company.

 

CLAIM TRACER

A request for information concerning the status of a claim.

 

CLAIMANT

Person or company filing a claim.

 

CLAMSHELL TAILGATE

Refers to the station wagon tailgate design where gate slides into the underbody and backlight slides into roof for access to the cargo area.

 

CLASS A

Show surface.

 

CLASS B

Exposed when door opens.

 

CLASS C

Totally hidden.

 

CLASS I MOTOR CARRIERS

Carriers having average gross operating revenues (including interstate and intrastate) of 55 million or more per year.

 

CLASS II MOTOR CARRIERS

Carriers having average gross operas trig revenues (including interstate and intrastate) between $ 1 to $ 5 million per year.

 

CLASS III MOTOR CARRIERS

Carriers having average annual gross operating revenues (including interstate and intrastate) of less than $ l million per year.

 

CLASSIFICATION (FREIGHT)

A publication containing a list of articles and the classes to which they are assigned for the purpose of applying class rates together with governing rules and regulations.

 

CLASSIFICATION RATING

The class to which an article of freight is assigned for the purpose of applying class rates.

 

CLASSIFICATION YARD

A yard where cars are grouped according the their destinations and made ready for proper train movement.

 

CLAY APPROVAL

Approval by the Vice-President of the affected Vehicle Group, of the visible attributes of the proposed vehicle. This is accomplished by viewing physical properties, normally constructed in clay and built in the Design Center (Styling). (Normally 24 months prior to Job #1.)

 

CLAY BUCK

Same as armature.

 

CLAY SQUEEZE

An impression made by forcing soft clay on an object.

 

CLEAN BILL OF LADING

A bill of lading signed by the carrier for receipt of merchandise in good condition (no damage, loss, etc. apparent), and which does not bear such notation as "shipper's load and count."

 

CLEAN BORE TANK

A single tank without compartments inside.

 

CLEAR RECORD

A record which shows that a shipment was handled without loss as damage.

 

CLEARANCE LIGHTS

The small lights that outline a vehicle's length and breadth. The lamps at the front and sides are amber those visible from the rear are red. Also called marker or running lights. Also see identification lights. Required by the FMCSR. on vehicles 8O inches or more in width.

 

CLEARANCE OR CLEARANCE LIMIT

The limiting dimensions of height and width for cars in order that they may safely clear all bridges, tunnels, station platforms and other structures as well as equipment on adjacent tracks.

 

CLEARING HOUSE

An organization set up to process and collect bills for participating trucking companies.

 

CLEAT

A strip of wood or metal used for additional strength to prevent warping or to hold something in position.

 

CLO

Centerline of Occupant.

 

CLOCKWISE

Rotation in the same direction as the hands of a clock.

 

CLOSING VELOCITY

The velocity of approach of two vehicles (measured at each center of gravity) taken along a line between the centers at initial contact.

 

CLUTCH

The part of the power train that allows the driver to connect the engine to the wheels.

CLUTCH SWITCH

Switch on the clutch pedal that disables cruise control when the clutch is applied. ( Detroit )

CMVSS

Canadian Motor Vehicle Safety Standards

 

COACH JOINT

The butting of two pieces of metal, welding or bolting to right-angle flanges.

 

COAL CAR

A car for carrying coal, usually a hopper car.

 

Coasting

Driving Time when the engine is disengaged from the vehicle ( Detroit )

Coasting Percentage
Coasting Time divided by Driving Time ( Detroit )

Coasting Time
The condition when Vehicle Speed is greater than 40 mph and Engine Speed is less than 40% of maximum rated RPM. ( Detroit )

 

COBBLED

Production car with experimental or design components added or substituted. Often used to describe a component or model put together quickly.

 

COD

See collect shipment.

 

CODE X BODY

A partial vehicle assembled of major body panels, mechanically joined and certified to be within design tolerances. The assembly is generally in a "blue-buck" mode with body design "grid" lines scribed on the surface sheet metal to aid in controlling the assembly accuracy. The Code X assembly is used to check the vehicle design and its assembly feasibility.

 

COEFFICIENT OF FRICTION

(dynamic): A number representing the resistance to sliding of two surfaces in contact; the drag factor of a vehicle or other object sliding on a roadway or other surface which is level; the force parallel to a surface required to keep in motion an object sliding on that surface, divided by the force of the object against that surface; measured in pounds per pound; often designated by the Greek letter Mu.

 

COEFFICIENT OF KINETIC FRICTION

(uk): Defined as the friction force (f) divided by the normal force (y) of one surface sliding across another at a constant speed.

 

COEFFICIENT OF RESTITUTION

The coefficient of restitution is a measure of the degree to which the total kinetic energy of two vehicles in a collusion is dissipated by the collision; The ratio of the rebound velocity to the impact velocity of two objects and measures the amount of bounce. When two cars collide they may bounce apart with no deformation (coefficient = 1.0) or they may deform to a given extent (coefficient 1). The difference between the dynamic crush and static crush COR = [DYN CR - STA CR]. The measured values are typically between 10 and 20 percent.

 

COEFFICIENT OF STATIC FRICTION

(us): Defined as the critical friction force (fc) divided by the normal force (y), where fc is the friction force when the object is on the verge of sliding.

 

COIL SPRING

Spring stock coiled in cylindrical form.

 

COKE BOTTLE

A double swell in the plan view contour. Looking directly down on a car, the body is narrower in the middle section than over the front and rear wheels.

 

COKE RACK

A slatted frame or box applied above the sides and ends of gondola or hopper cars to increase the cubic capacity for the purpose of carrying coke or other freight in which the bulk is large relative to the weight.

 

COLD DEVELOPMENT

The development of a pattern blank by unfolding flanged and warped surfaces using paper, tape and the wood model.

 

COLLECT SHIPMENT

A shipment where collection of freight charges and advances are made by the delivering carrier upon delivery. Abbreviated as cod and commonly called COD by truckers.

 

COLLINEAR COLLISION

A collision between two objects in which their respective directions of travel are parallel to one another.

 

COLLISION

The coming together of two bodies resulting in an abrupt change in motion of at least one of the bodies.

 

COLLISION COURSE

Motion of a traffic unit or other object which, if continued without modification, will result in collision with another traffic unit or other object. Objects are on a collision course if the space between them is diminishing and the angle between the path of either an a line between them is consistent.

 

COLLISION SCRUB

Skid marks-left by wheels momentarily kept from rotating by forces of collision. The marks are usually not more than 10 feet in length in same direction collisions they tend to belong and straight. In opposite direction collisions they are likely to be short and curved. They indicate the movement of the tire on the road during encasement (impact) between the vehicle and some other object.

 

COLLISIONS - ELASTIC

A central collision between two bodies in which no permanent deformation takes place and both momentum and kinetic energy are conserved.

 

COLLISIONS - INELASTIC

A central collision between two bodies in which there is permanent deformation. Momentum is conserved kinetic energy is not.

 

COLUMN PRESS

An upright press open at the front and back with straight sides at the ends of the bed.

 

COMBINATION

Truck coupled to one or more trailers.

 

COMBINATION RATE

A freight rate made through rates by combining two or more rates published in different tariffs.

 

COMBINATION THROUGH RATE

A through rate made by combining two or more rates published in different tariffs.

 

COMBINATION VEHICLE

A truck or truck-tractor coupled to one or ,more trailers, also referred to as a "rig." See rig.

 

COMBINED VELOCITY

(vc): The result of integrating the velocities of a series of events to obtain the starting or initial velocity.

 

COMBUSTIBLE

Able to catch fire and burn easily.

 

COMBUSTION

Burning.

 

COMMODITY

Any article of commerce. Goods shipped.

 

COMMODITY, EXEMPT

One that may be transported in interstate commerce without operating authority or published rates.

 

COMMON CARRIER

A transportation business that offers service to the general public. Interstate common carriers must hold a franchise issued by the Interstate Commerce Commission. This franchise limits service to a specific geographical area. Rates also are regulated. Routes and schedules of regular common carriers are regulated by government agencies, but irregular route common carriers may set their own without regulatory approval. Most states also regulate common carriers.

 

COMMON CENTER OF MASS

In any collision the common center of mass is unaffected by the collision. The common center of mass will still be moving at the same speed and direction after collision as it hat prior to collision.

 

COMMON VELOCITY

That velocity achieved by some point on both vehicles at some time during the impact, often referred to as the velocity achieved by both vehicles when both centers of mass are moving at the same velocity.

 

COMPANION FLANGE

Circular flanged plate connecting driveshaft with transmission or axle.

 

COMPARTMENT TANK CAR

A tank car with the tank body divided into several sections for the purpose of carrying different commodities in each compartment or smaller shipments.

 

COMPARTMENTIZER CAR

A box car equipped with moveable bulkheads which can be used to divide the car into separate compartments.

 

COMPATIBILITY

The characteristic of a particular motor vehicle which determines the degree to which protection is achieved for occupants in that vehicle and for occupants in all other vehicles with which that vehicle may collide, and for pedestrians and cyclist which may collide with that vehicle.

 

COMPLETE COLLISION

A complete collision occurs when motion momentarily ceases between some areas of the colliding objects while they are in contact with one another.

 

COMPLEX DAMPING

Damping in which the force opposing the vibratory motion is variable, but not proportional to the velocity.

 

COMPLEX REACTION

A choice between two or more possible reactions to an unexpected hazard.

 

COMPLEX REACTION TIME

Complex reaction time is that reaction time determined in cases where there are multiple stimuli each with its own response. In these multiple choice situations, where the stimulus may be simple but the number of choices is great the reaction time increases with the number of choices. Complex reaction time is also known as disjunctive reaction time.

 

COMPLEXITY

Complexity, as used in BEPE, refers to the number of BAO-Assembly end items (including major parts and standard parts) that are required to build Vehicle Line-up; the effect of color components is incorporated. Complexity estimates are initially obtained from detailed analysis of Redbook assumptions and are later modified by Product/Engineering Letter program actions.

 

COMPLIANCE CHAMBER

The camber motion of a wheel resulting from compliance in suspension linkages and produced by forces and/or moments applied at the tire-road contact.

 

COMPLIANCE CHAMBER COEFFICIENT

The rate of change in wheel inclination angle with respect to change in forces or moments applied at the tire-road contact.

 

COMPLIANCE STEER

The change in steer angle of front or rear wheels resulting from compliance in suspension and steering linkages and produced by forces and/or moments applied at the tire-road contact.

 

COMPLIANCE STEER COEFFICIENT

The rate of change in compliance steer with respect to change in forces or moments applied at the tire-road contact.

 

COMPLIANCE UNDERSTEER

Compliance steer which increases vehicle understeer or increases vehicle oversteer.

 

COMPONENT

A single-function unit, such as a transmission.

 

COMPONENT DESIGN

Is the activity having responsibility for, but not limited to, the design of specific single components; this includes the responsibility for materials, cost, weight, reliability, durability, function, appearance, serviceability and ease of manufacture, consistent with pertinent specifications and timing and financial objectives.

 

COMPONENT TEST VEHICLE

Is basically current production, revised, modified, or reworked in certain areas to incorporate on e or more components which are the design responsibility of the "PEO" initiating the test. These are intended for initial testing and development on advance programs prior to design and procurement of complete mating parts.

 

COMPOSITE DEVELOPMENT VEHICLE

Includes a component(s) being developed by a PEO for which mating components designed by one ore more other PEO are required.

 

COMPRESSION

The relative displacement of sprung and unsprung masses in the suspension system in which the distance between the masses decreases from that at static condition.

 

COMPRESSION RATIO

Volume of air above the piston at bottom dead center compared with volume of air at top dead center.

 

COMPRESSION STROKE

A phase of the four-stroke cycle when the air-fuel mix is compressed.

 

COMPRESSOR

See air compressor.

 

COMPWCS

Comprehensive Weight Control System

 

CONCEALED DAMAGE

A damage to the contents of a package which is apparently in good condition externally.

 

CONCEALED LOSS

Loss or damage that cannot be determined until the package is opened.

 

CONCENTRIC

Having a common center.

 

CONCEPT VEHICLE

A current production vehicle modified to accept installation of new design concepts for evaluation of environmental functional feasibility. Components used for this purpose may be handmade or produced from preliminary experimental tools and need not be dimensionally compatible with the final intent.

 

CONCRETE

A paving material consisting of an aggregate of stones of assorted sizes held together with a cement binder; bituminous concrete, Portland cement concrete.

 

CONDENSER

An element usually found in the distributor (in gasoline engine ignition systems) that stores electricity for a short period of time.

 

CONDITIONS FACTORS

Deficiencies in basic attributes of roads, vehicles, or people, as related to highway transportation and permanently or temporarily modified, that contribute to operational factors.

 

CONDUCTOR

A train service employee in charge of train or yard crew. Also called yard Foreman.

 

CONFLICTING ROUTES

Two or more routes over which movements can not be made simultaneously without possibility of collision.

 

CONNECTING CARRIER

Motor carriers which interchange trailers with another for completion of shipments.

 

CONNECTING ROD

Rod that connects the piston to the crankshaft.

 

CONSERVATION OF ANGULAR MOMENTUM

If the net torque (t) on a body remains constant, its angular momentum will remain constant in magnitude and direction Angular momentum has magnitude (iw) and is directed along the axis of rotation.

 

CONSERVATION OF ENERGY

The principal of physics stating that the amount of energy in a closed system is constant regardless of the changes in form of that energy. Used in accident investigation in estimating vehicle speed from the distance required to slide to a stop and other applications, such as speed from damage.

 

CONSERVATION OF LINEAR MOMENTUM

If the resultant external force acting on a system of bodies is zero (0), the vector sum of the moments of the objects will remain constant. In collision, the vector sum of the moments just prior to impact equals the sum of the moments just after impact.

 

CONSIGN

To send or address goods to another.

 

CONSIGNEE

One to whom something is shipped.

 

CONSIGNEE MARKS

A symbol placed on packages for export, consisting of such things as a square, triangle, diamond circle, cross, etc. with designed letters and or numbers for the purpose of identification.

 

CONSIGNMENT

A shipment.

 

CONSIGNOR

The person by who articles are shipped (also known as the shipper).

 

CONSIST

The make up of a freight train in terms of car types.

 

CONSPICUITY

Ability to be easily seen or noticed, readily observable. Attracting special attention as by outstanding qualities.

 

CONSTANT MESH

Transmission gears which are constantly in mesh.

 

CONSTANT-VELOCITY UNIVERSAL JOINT

A universal joint which transmits rotation with constant velocity between output and input shafts.

 

CONSTRUCTIVE PLACEMENT

When, due to some disability on the part of the consignor or consignee, a car can not be placed for loading or unloading, it is considered as being under constructive placement and subject to demurrage rules and charges, the same as if it were actually placed.

 

CONTACT DAMAGE

Deformation or defacement resulting from direct pressure of another object or surface in an impact, direct damage, Compare with induced damage.

 

CONTACT PATCH

The portion of the tire that is in contact with the road surface. Also called the tire foot print.

 

CONTAINER

Anything in which articles are packed.

 

CONTAINER (VAN BODY TYPE)

A truck or trailer body provided with means for ready removal from and attachment to a vehicle.

 

CONTAINER CAR

A flat of open top car such as a gondola on which containers of freight are loaded.

 

CONTAINERIZATION

Shipping system based upon large cargo-carrying containers that easily can be interchanged between trucks, trains and ships without re handling the contents.

 

CONTINUOUS SEAL

A term denoting that the seals on a truck remained intact during the movement of the truck from origin to destination or, if broken in transit, that it was done by proper authority and without opportunity for loss to occur before new seals were applied.

 

CONTRABAND

Illegal or prohibited traffic or freight.

 

CONTRACT CARRIER

A company that engages in for hire transportation of property under individual contract or agreement with one or a limited number of shippers.

 

CONTROL

(air line; See air lines)

 

CONTROL POINT

A location where the signals and / or switches of a traffic control system are operated and /or controlled from a distant location by a dispatched.

 

CONTROLLED FINAL POSITION

A final position reached because of a conscious effort of some person to modify the motion of a traffic unit after an accident.

 

CONTROLLED SIDING

A siding, the use of which is governed by signals under the control of a train dispatcher or operator.

 

CONTROLLED STOP

The ability to retard the vehicle(s) to a complete stop from any speed without wheel hop, chatter or lockup.

 

CONVENTIONAL TRUCK CHASSIS

In a conventional truck chassis, the engine is located forward of the driver position, and the chassis style is characterized by a long hood over the engine.

 

CONVERTER

Hydraulic-type clutch multiplying the torque of the engine in infinitely variable ratios.

 

CONVERTER GEAR OR DOLLY

The coupling device composed of one or two axles and a fifth wheel by which a semi trailer can be coupled to the rear of a tractor-trailer combination, forming a double-bottom rig.

 

CONVERTIBLE

A truck or trailer that can be used either as a flat-bed or open top by means of removable side panels.

 

CONVERTIBLE BOOT

A covering usually held in place with snap fasteners, over the folded-down soft top.

 

CONVERTIBLE STACK

That part of a convertible top which projects above the beltline or deck when the top is folded down.

 

CONVEX MIRROR

A type of mirror having a convex shape in order to show a larger field of view than can be obtained from a flat mirror of the same size.

 

COOLANT

Liquid used in cooling system to dissipate engine heat.

 

COORDINATE MEASUREMENTS

A method of locating any spot in an area by two measurements from the nearest point to the spot on a specified reference line; 1) the distance and direction from that point to the spot and 2) the distance and direction from that point to a specified reference point on the reference line.

 

COPE

Upper section of flask used in casting metal.

 

CORD SEPARATION

Cord separation occurs when tire cords part from adjacent rubber compounds.

 

CORDS

Cords are the strand forming the plies in the tire.

 

CORE

On a radiator, a tubular fin structure acting as a heat exchanger for engine cooling fluids.

 

CORNERED

A term used when a car has been struck by another car because it was not in the clear. See In the clear.

 

CORNERING LIMIT

The maximum lateral acceleration at given speed.

 

CORNFIELD MEET

Head-on collision between two trains using the same main track.

 

COS/MOS

Complimentary-metal oxide semiconductor, a type of integrated circuit logic which employs field effect transistors.

 

COULOMB DAMPING

Damping in which a constant force opposes the vibratory motion.

 

COUNTER STEER

The application of a steer torque in the direction opposite to that in which the vehicle is turning, or in the direction in which a turn is intended.

 

COUNTERCLOCKWISE

Direction in opposite direction to the hands of a clock.

 

COUPLER

An appliance for connecting cars or locomotives together. Government regulations require that these must couple automatically by impact and must be uncoupled without going between the cars.

 

COUPLER CENTERING DEVICE

An arrangement for maintaining the coupler normally in the center line of draft but allowing it to move to either side when a car is rounding a curve while coupled to another car.

 

COUPLER KNUCKLE LOCK

The block which drops into position when the knuckle closes and holds it in place, preventing uncoupling.

 

COUPLER LOCK LIFTER

The part of the mechanism inside the coupler head which is moved by the uncoupling rod and, in moving, lifts the knuckle lock so that the knuckle can open.

 

COURSE ANGLE

(v) is the angle between the trace of the vehicle velocity vector on the X-Y plane and X-axis of the earth-fixed axis system.

 

COVER

A trim panel which protects the ACRS module until system actuation and then opens, permitting the cushions to deploy.

 

COVERED GONDOLAS

Gondolas which have been equipped with some form of removable cover which can be placed over the lading to protect it from weather exposure in transit. Used primarily for loading sheet steel in coils or bundles without the necessity of packing.

 

COVERED HOPPER CAR

A hopper car with a permanent roof, roof hatches and bottom opening for unloading. Used for carrying cement or other bulk commodities.

 

COWL

The cowl is that portion of an automobile between the engine compartment and the driver. The cowl ordinarily contains the instrumentation which is visible to the driver.

 

Cp

(Process Potential Index) is an index which is the ratio of the tolerance range to the six sigma process spread without regard to the location of the data.

 

"C" PILLAR

Third pillar in roof, counting from the front.

 

Cpk

(Process Capability Index) An index which considers both the process spread and the proximity of the process spread to specification limits.

 

CPM

(Component Parts Manufacturers) "Tier I and II" customer accounts that supply component parts to the automotive industry.

 

CPV

Capacity Planning Volume

 

CR/CR

(Concern Report/Change Request) is the system for reporting and resolving concerns throughout Ford operations.

 

CRAMP ANGLE

Maximum turn of steering wheels in either direction, measured in degrees.

 

CRANK PRESS

A crank shaft actuated mechanical press of single action. May be solid or equipped with air cushions for secondary action.

 

CRANKCASE VENTILATION

Vent system for crankcase, provides for burning of oil vapor rather than exhausting to atmosphere.

 

CRANKSHAFT

A shaft within the engine having one or more cranks for transmitting motion the connecting rods transmit motion between the pistons and the crankshaft.

 

CRASH BARS

Metal tubing mounted to the frame to protect occupants if an upset occurs.

 

CRASH III

A computer program developed by Calspan Corporation under the sponsorship of NHTSA to aid in accident investigation and reconstruction. "CRASH" Calspan Reconstruction of Accident Speeds on the Highway.

 

CRASH RECORDER

A device which records crash levels and improper ACRS maintenance. It is attached to the sensor.

 

CRASH SENSOR

A device which detects an impact, judges its severity, and if ACRS deployment threshold is reached, provides an actuation signal to the inflator.

 

CREASE LINE

Discernible line in the body exterior skin caused by an abrupt change in surface.

 

CREEPER GEAR

(slang) Lowest gear or combination of gears used for extra power.

 

CREST

An ornamental device. The hallmark of a car line, series or body style, usually in stylized heraldic shield shape.

 

CREW

General term used to describe the individuals working together as a unit, such as train crew.

 

CRIB

That portion of ballast between two adjacent ties.

 

CRITICAL DAMPING

The minimum amount of viscous damping required in a linear system to prevent the displacement of the system from passing the equilibrium position upon returning from an initial displacement.

 

CRITICAL SLIP

Critical Slip is the wheel slip at which a tire develops its maximum brake or drive slip resistance. See Slip.

 

CRITICAL SLIP ANGLE

Critical Slip angle refers to the angle at which a tire develops its maximum cornering slip resistance. See Slip Angle.

 

CRITICAL SPEED

The term "Critical Speed" means the maximum speed at which a vehicle can negotiate a curve, 2. That forward speed for an oversteer vehicle at which the steering sensitivity at zero lateral acceleration trim is infinite.

 

CRITICAL SPEED SCUFFS

See Centrifugal Skid Mark.

 

CRITICAL VELOCITY

A velocity above which a particular highway curve, or a curve demanded by the driver, could be negotiated by a motor vehicle without a yaw; the speed at which the centrifugal force of a vehicle following a specific curve exceeds the traction force of the tires on the surface.

 

CROOK

An abrupt change of direction of a tire mark due to collision forces. The crook often indicates the position of a tire at first contact.

 

CROSS SLOPE

( see Super elevation)

 

CROSS TIE

The transverse member of the track structure to which the rails are spiked to provide proper gage and to cushion, distribute, and transmit the stresses of traffic through the ballast to the roadbed.

 

CROSSING (track)

A structure used where one track crosses another at grade, and consisting of four connected frogs.

 

CROSS-MEMBER

Structural shape tying in side rails of frame.

 

CROSSOVER

Two turnouts with track between, connecting two nearby and usually parallel tracks.

 

CROWN ROADWAY

The amount by which the center of a roadway is higher than the edge, usually for drainage purposes.

 

CROWSFEET

Visible lines of distortion radiating intermittently along a flanged break line or offset.

 

CRUISE SPEED

90% of maximum geared speed.

 

CRUISE
Operation where the Vehicle Speed is controlled by the cruise control routine. ( Detroit )

CRUISE ECONOMY
Cruise Distance divided by Cruise Fuel. ( Detroit )

CRUISE FUEL
Fuel consumed during cruise control operation. ( Detroit )

CRUISE PERCENT
Trip Cruise Time divided by Driving Time. ( Detroit )

CRUISE TIME
Time accumulated during cruise control, in HH:MM:SS format. ( Detroit )

CRUSH DISTANCE

Crush distance is the amount of permanent deformation which a vehicle, or object, experiences as a result of impact. The crush distance is measured from the original bodyline to the damaged area.

 

CRUSH ENERGY

The amount of energy used up in crushing the vehicle structure in a collision.

 

CRYOGENIC LIQUID

A refrigerated liquefied gas having a boiling point colder than 130 F (54.4 C).

 

CS

(Characteristic Standard) Engineering standards which include a complete listing of safety/emission inspection/test and general characteristics of a component group. (Chrysler derived)

 

CSA

Cross section area used for costing mass estimate.

 

CSM

Cold splice mitre corner glued.

 

CTC

(Concept to Customer) Ford new product development cycle timing plan that established benchmarks for significant product development events within a 48 hour period.

 

CTL

Cut to length.

 

CTLN

Cut to length and notch.

 

CUBE

Three-dimensional representation of the allowable dimensions of a vehicle under development. Also a grouping of exterior die models arranged in their proper position to check continuity of surfaces.

 

CUBIC CAPACITY

The carrying capacity of a truck measured in cubic feet.

 

CUBIC CENTIMETER

A metric volume measurement (CC) equal to approximately 0.061 cubic inches.

 

CUBIC FOOT

A common measure of the capacity of a truck, 1,728 cubic inches.

 

CUBING OUT

Utilizing full cargo space provided by truck or trailer body or container.

 

CURB HEIGHT

Height of the vehicle without passengers or trunk load.

 

CURB WEIGHT

Curb weight is the weight of a motor vehicle with standard equipment maximum capacity of engine fuel, oil, and coolant: and if so equipped, air conditioning and additional weight of optional engine.

 

CURING

A stage required by some synthetic materials, notably Fiberglass, after forming and before further use.

 

CURRENT

Flow of electrical energy.

 

CURRENT OF TRAFFIC

The movement of trains on a track in designated direction specified in the time table.

 

CURRENT REGULATOR

A device that controls the amperage output of a generator.

 

CUSHION UNDER FRAME

A term commonly used to designate the frame work of a rail way car which is designed to prevent the shocks and impact stresses from damaging the car structure or its lading. The principle involved is the application of a center sill member which is detached and permitted to travel longitudinally in either direction through the bolster cross bearings and end sills. This travel is resiliently or hydraulically resistant and controlled by high capacity cushion gears located within the center sills.

 

CUSTOM HOUSE

The governments office where duties, tolls, import, or export taxes are paid.

 

CUT

1) To uncouple a car. 2) A group of cars coupled together. 3) The part of the right away which is excavated out of a hill or mountain instead of running up over it or being tunneled through it.

 

CUTLINE

A groove etched in a clay model to represent a door, hood, or decklid opening.

 

CUTOUT COCK (air brake)

A valve which, when closed, will bypass or cutout the brake system for that car. The closing of this valve does not interfere with the operation of the brakes on the other cars in the train.

 

CUTOUT RELAY

A magnetic switch used to open and close the electric circuit between the battery and the generator.

 

CV WINDOW

Controlled Ventilation. A movable glass pane directly aft of the "A" pillar and separate from the side window.

 

CYCLE

1) Cycle of oscillation is the complete sequence of variations in displacement which occur during a period. 2) Calendar Year

 

References

Detroit Diesel

Caterpillar User's Manual