Bureau of Motor Carrier Safety.
(Blood alcohol concentration), Results of a test for alcohol in the blood. The relative proportion of ethyl alcohol in the blood stated in terms of the number of milligrams of alcohol in 100 milliliters of blood (weight / volume). In nearly all states, 0.10 percent BAC is considered the limit for legal intoxication. In Kansas the limit is 0.8 percent.
(1) The return part of the trip (2) the freight that is carried on the return portion of a trip (3} a shipment that is carried back over part of a route that has been previously traveled.
The window across the rear of any automobile, regardless of body style. Sometimes called back window.
BACK-UP AIR SIGNAL
Warning whistle which can be operated at the rear of the train when backing up. Air for its operation is taken from the train line.
Car in need of repair.
A ball joint in the suspension of a vehicle comprises a stud, housing, boot, reloading spring, pressure plate, and insert. In the suspension, two ball joints are used at each wheel to form a pivot axis about which the wheel turns in steering. In other applications, a ball joint is a connection between parts which allows one part to rotate about a fixed point in the other part. Thus, a ball joint can transmit forces, but it cannot transmit any torque.
Selected material placed on the road bed to hold the track in line. Ballast preferably consists of hard particles easily handled in tampering, which distributes the load, drain well, and resist plant growth.
A car for carrying ballast for repair and construction work, usually a gondola or hopper.
A machine for compacting ballast under the ties.
Light, bulky cargo.
The first ply on the inside of a tire.
The degree to which the outside edge of a roadway is higher than the inside edge at a specified point on a curve; the change in elevation per unit of distance across the roadway from the inside curve to the outside edge; superelevation.
Body and Assembly Organization.
BARRIER COLLISION TEST
A number of Federal hater Vehicle Safety Standards require that a vehicle be tested in a collision with a fixed barrier, in accordance with the Society of Automotive Engineers Recommended Practice J850, "Barrier Collision Tests."
A line which, when placed parallel to a center or lane line, indicates that no traffic may cross the line for purposes of overtaking and passing; "a double line consisting of two normal solid yellow lines delineating the separation between travel paths in opposite directions where overtaking and passing is prohibited in both directions; a two direction no passing marking.",
The state in which a vehicle is primarily registered..
An electrochemical device for storing and supplying electrical energy
The length of the tractor from the bumper to the back of the cab. Always stated in inches.
Distance from back of cab to end of frame.
The inner edge of the outer wall of a rubber tire, fitting on the rim. The "foundation" of a tire. It is made of high tensile steel wires and wrapped and reinforced by the plies.
The approximately cylindrical portion of the bead that forms its inside diameter.
A molding with a small cross-section of any length.
BEAD SEAT (TIRE)
The bead seat is the part of the wheel rim into which the best of the tire is mounted.
BEAD SEPARATION (TIRE)
Bead separation is a breakdown of the bond between components in the bead area.
That portion of the bead which joins the bead base and the inside surface of the tire.
The distance from the heel of one bead straight up at 90- to the bead over the crown and down the other side to a position on the heel of the other bead directly opposite the starting point.
A mode of vibration involving predominantly bending deformations of the sprung mass about the vehicle y-axis.
A railroad eating house.
A relative degree of surface contact between one die member and another.
Exposed, large, round, bright bolt heads on the surface of bumpers. Also used to identify similar parts of station wagon simulated-wood side treatment. The "beauty" in this context is ironic.
BELT DRIVE AXLE
An axle driven by V-belts, which transmit power from the drive axle. See Y-belt drive.
BELT DRIVEN AXLE
An axle driven by V-belts, which transmits power from the drive axle
A short railroad operating within or around a city.
The length of the belt that leaves the retractor spool prior to the belt locking mechanism engaging as a result of an impact. Typical belt playout is 2.5 - 5 cm (1/2 inches).
The lengthening of the lap or shoulder belt due to dynamic loading during impact. Typical belt stretch is 15cm (6 inches) in a 48 KHP (30 mph) barrier equivalent impact.
BELT WORK LINE
Arbitrary horizontal work line usually located at approximately the 35 inch line and commonly shown as BWL.
A belted tire is a tire in which an outer layer, or belt, of class, steel or rayon fibers, is wrapped around the circumference of the tire just beneath the tread.
A type of tire construction which includes one or more reinforcing belts of fabric or steel. These belts run circumferentially around the crown of the tire.
The line established by the upper edge of the car lower body at the glass openings, as seen from the side.
The product of force and distance from point of support to point where force is applied causing bending or distortion.
Drive mechanism on cranking motor.
"B" END OF CAR
The end of which the hand brake is located.
The shoulder of the road.
Gear used to transmit power at angle.
A frame, escutcheon, or rim, usually surrounding a lamp or opening. Either bright-finished or painted.
Construction where cords run diagonally to the tire's bead or direction of rotation. In conversation, "bias-ply" has come to mean an old-style tire.
A two wheeled pedal cycle.
A two wheeled pedal cycle.
(slang) Emergency position on the air brake valve.
BILL OF LADING
(B/L) The written transportation contract between shipper and carrier (or their agents) . It identifies the freight, who is to receive it and the place of delivery and gives the terms of the assignment. All goods going to a receiver at one destination in a single shipment or on one truck must be on a single bill of lading. The straight bill of lading provides that freight be delivered to the receiver shown on the bill. It is non-negotiable. Surrender of this type of bill of lading is not required except when it is necessary for the receiver to identify himself. This might be necessary for example, for certain bonded goods such as liquor. Always printed on white paper. The other bill of lading is negotiable. Its purpose is to enable a shipper to collect for the shipment before it reaches its destination. The shipper sends an original bill of lading and draft for the charges through a bank. The receiver pays the carrier's agent the amount of the draft and then and then can receive the goods. With this method, the shipper customarily consigns the shipment to himself. The person or company to be notified at destination is specified. The shipment may be released to the receiver only upon the order of the shipper. The order bill of lading must be surrendered with delivery of the freight. Always printed on yellow paper. Either straight or order bills of lading me be designated as "through" . A through bill of lading covers shipment by more than one transportation company at a fixed rate for the entire service. More than one type of transportation company (such as truck or rail) may be utilized. All see clean bill of lading.
BILL OF SALE
A contract for the sale of goods.
The weight shown in a freight bill.
A low side gondola car built of steel throughout for transportation of hot steel billets.
Location where the waybill is prepared.
BILLING REPAIR CARD
The card furnished to the car owner when repair work is done on a foreign car.
A distortion in panel surfaces resulting from an improper binder configuration. Metal is permitted to crowd together and subsequent draw is insufficient to remove the bruise.
See cab card
The study of energy and forces and their relation to motion, deformation or equilibrium of human and other living entities. The analysis of action of forces on biological materials or biological systems.
Rectangular sewn area on a seat or door panel.
Concrete cemented with a bituminous material such as tar or asphalt.
A thin,, sharply defined ridge in the body metal, or an appliqué of a similar nature.
BLANKET WAY BILL
A waybill covering two or more consignments of freight
See hazardous material
BLEED THE AIR TANKS
To drain the accumulated water out of the air tanks of a tractor to prevent the condensed water from reducing air tank capacity and thus cutting braking efficiency.
BLEED THE FUEL LINES
To remove trapped air from the fuel lines.
Unusually wide "C" pillar or roof quarter, tending the enclose rear seat area.
The right side of the truck and trailer, opposite of the site side.
Small ornamentation in series; I.e., several identical ports, bars, windsplits, etc., aligned horizontally or vertically on the body.
1) A length of track of defined limits. 2) A group of cars classified for movement to the same yard or terminal.
A signal at the entrance of a block to govern trains and engines entering and using that block.
BLOCK SIGNAL SYSTEM
A method of governing the movement of trains into or within one or more blocks by the use of signals.
Supports used to prevent cargo from shifting during transportation.
Bleeding rubber-oils surface and discolor.
Engine gases leaking past the piston rings and/or valves and entering the crankcase. Overflow.
(1) A device that forces additional air into the engine to increase its efficiency and horsepower. Two types of blowers are the supercharger and the turbocharger; (2) A fan that blows air over ice to maintain a low temperature in a trailer transporting perishable goods.
A regulatory valve on the air system that allows the escape of excess air pressure if the governor on the air compressor fails to operate.
an incomplete assembly of a vehicle generally consisting of the major body panels welded together and in a state prior to prime and paint processing.
See hazardous material
A print reproduced, usually on paper, by an ammonia developing process. Also known as "print" or "blueprint".
Basic Manufacturing Division
Brake mean effective pressure.
A fixed signal regulating railroad traffic and usually referred to as a slow board, order board, clear board, or red board.
A term commonly applied to a car used as a place of lodging for workmen. In the case of wreck trains, they are more often called dinning and sleeping cars.
A tractor without a trailer; or a single truck.
Structure mounted on chassis for cargo or passengers.
BODY CENTER PLATE
The center plate attached to the underside of the body bolster. See center plate.
Area designated as such for the assembly of the body shell.
Door handles, window operating cranks, locks, hinges, ventilation knobs, mirrors, and other functional and appearance metal parts.
BODY LOCK PILLAR
The body pillar that contains the lock striker plate. Usually is integral with center pillar of rear quarter assembly.
Opening in the body surface to match the edges of doors, tailgates, etc.
BODY SIDE MOLDING
Usually narrow plastic part attached to doors to protect body sides from damage.
The general configuration or shape of a vehicle distinguished by characteristics such as the number of doors, seats, or windows, roof line, hard top, convertible, etc.
1) Usually an axle added to a tractor to carry more weight as weight distribution. 2) The running gear of a highway semi-trailer which may be removed. 3) The term used generally to mean swivel railway truck.
An assembly of two or more axles, such as a tandem axle.
1) A cross member on the under side of a car body and in the center of a truck, through which the weight is transmitted. The bolsters carry the body and truck center plates, the body bolster resting on the truck bolster, and is connected to it with a center pin. 2) The portion of the seat which rolls over or forms the upper most part of the seat-back or the leading edge of the seat itself.
BOLT AND BOND ASSEMBLY
A method of attaching parts or sub-assemblies together by bolting and applying adhesive instead of welding.
The diameter of the circle which traces through the centerline of the bolt holes. It defines the bolt hole spacing around the disc in a wheel.
A warehouse approved by the US Treasury Department and under bond or guarantee of the strict observance of the revenue laws. Also utilized for storing goods until duties are paid or otherwise released.
The protective covering over the air intake that keeps water or other substances from entering the air system; or the hood on any conventional type tractor.
A high intensity vibration (25-100 Hz) perceived audibly and characterized as sensation of pressure by the ear.
BOOM IT DOWN
(slang) : Tighten chains around freight.
(slang) See chain binders.
Pressure of air above atmospheric pressure created by the turbocharger. ( Detroit )
Folding top storage area (convertible).
Pocket at the rear of the rear wheel house formed by the quarter panel and at the quarter panel-to-pan filter.
The diameter of a cylinder.
BORE & STROKE
Bore is the diameter of a cylinder; the stroke is the maximum distance a piston moves during one complete stroke.
A truck body designed for hauling cased, bottled beverages.
BOTTOM DEAD CENTER
Lowest point of periphery of flywheel when crank-throw is in lowest position.
Trailer body designed to dump its cargo through gates in the bottom or floor of the trailer.
Botts dots are raised pavement markers used to delineate separate lanes, shoulders or center dividers.
The amount of springiness in a vehicle as a result of impact crash. The deformed materials will expand after the maximum deformation (dynamic crush) to "settle" in at the static crush value. A vehicle impacted into an immoveable barrier will "bounce" back from the barrier coming to rest away from the barrier.
An enclosed car used for general service and especially for lading which must be protected from the weather.
Second pillar in roof, counting from the windshield.
A brake is any mechanism used to retard, stop or hold a vehicle in place. It is usually applied at the drive shaft or wheels of a vehicle and converts energy to heat by means of friction.
BRAKE ACTUATION TIME
Brake actuation time is the time between application of pedal pressure in an air brake system and the time the brake chamber pressure reaches 60 psi. Current Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard).
The brake anchor is the pivot pin on the backing plate of the brake against which the brake shoe bears.
BRAKE APPLICATION VALVE
A control unit which controls air pressure to the brake cylinders or brake chambers.
The brake band is ú band which surrounds the brake drum to which the brake lining is attached.
Brake bleeding is a procedure for removing air from the lines of an hydraulic system in an automobile.
A vacuum mechanical means for increasing brake pedal pressure.
A conditioning of a brake's friction surfaces by wear and temperature, either by a test procedure or in-service operation.
A unit in which a diaphragm converts pressure to mechanical force for actuation of the brake.
Three foot hickory stick used by freight trainman to tighten hand brakes.
The number of times the service brake was applied. ( Detroit )
A brake cylinder is a cylinder in which a piston converts hydraulic pressure to mechanical force in order to move the brake shoes in a brake assembly against the braking surface of either a drum or a disc brake rotor plate.
Bellows-type chamber used to convert comp=air pressure to mechanical force.
A brake disc is a circular plate against which a brake lining is forced by hydraulic pressure. The purpose of this is similar to the purposes of the brake assembly described under the brake cylinder.
The brake drum is the cylindrical portion of the inside of the wheel, usually metal such as cast iron, to which the friction Material of the brake shoe is applied in stopping a vehicle.
There are two definitions for braking efficiency: 1. Braking efficiency is the ratio of the force necessary to cause the braked wheels of a vehicle to rotate, divided by the weight of the vehicle, expressed as a percent. 2. Braking efficiency is the ratio of the deceleration which is produced by a braking system divided by the maximum acceleration possible with the available coefficient of friction between tires and road. The efficiency can be expressed as a ratio, or as a percent.
Brake fade is a condition where repeated application of the brakes causes a loss of frictional ability due to heating which results in the impairment of braking efficiency.
A special oil used in the hydraulic braking system to transmit pressure through a closed system of tubing known as the brake lines
BRAKE FORCE - ATTEMPTED
The force that is capable of being produced by the mechanical components.
BRAKE FORCE - AVAILABLE
The force available is identified by multiplying the load on the braked wheel by the truck tire / roadway surface friction interface.
An oscillatory hopping motion of a single wheel or of a pair of wheels which occurs when brakes are applied in forward or reverse motion of the vehicle.
When referring to the power of an engine, brake horsepower is the power output of the engine.
A brake hose is a reinforced, flexible hose, usually made of reinforced rubber, which connects the solid metal part of the hydraulic system (attached to the body or frame) to the moving part of the brake system. She moving part is usually connected directly to the brake wheel cylinder.
BRAKE LIMITING VALVE
A valve in the brake application system which limits the maximum permissible pressure passed on to the front axle brakes.
A brake line is the metallic part of the hydraulic brake system of a vehicle. It is comprised of metallic tubing and fittings. Usually, there are four brake lines, running from the master cylinder (or from an equalization switch near the master cylinder) to a point near each wheel, Brake hoses are used to connect the brake lines to the wheel cylinders.
The brake lining is the material which is attached to the brake shoe and which in the process of braking contacts the brake drum in order to retard or bring the vehicle to a stop. The material used for the brake lining must have a suitable coefficient of friction.
A train service employee who assist with train and yard operations.
A flat metal piece with a brake lining which is forced against the rotor of a disc brake to produce braking action on a wheel.
BRAKE PAWL (hand brake)
A small, specially shaped, steel piece, pivoted to engage the teeth of a brake ratchet wheel to prevent turning backward, and thus releasing the brakes.
BRAKE PEDAL RESERVE
Brake pedal reserve is the ratio of the length of the depressed pedal position to the free pedal position, where the length is measured from the brake pedal to the floorboard.
The air brake piping of a car or locomotive which acts as a supply pipe for the reservoir. When all brake pipes on the car are adjoined, the entire pipe line comprises what is commonly called "train line".
BRAKE POWER ASSIST UNIT
The brake power assist unit in an hydraulic brake system is that device which reduces the operator effort required to actuate the system, and if inoperative does not prevent the operator from braking the vehicle by a continued application of muscular force on the service brake control.
BRAKE RATCHET (hand brake)
A wheel attached to the brake shaft, having teeth which the pawl engages, thus preventing the wheel and shaft from turning backward.
Proving performance. In terms of horsepower, the maximum power that the brakes will absorb or dissipate as heat in a specified period of time.
BRAKE RELEASE TIME
Brake release time is the time-it takes the pressure in the brake chamber of an air brake system to fall from 98 psi. to 5 psi. after release of the brake pedal. (Current Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard definition).
A shaft on which a chain is wound and by which the power of a hand brake is applied to the wheels.
The non rotating unit of the brake (to which the brake shoe is attached) that contacts the rotating unit to supply braking force.
A small shelf or ledge on the end of the a freight car on which the brakeman stands when applying the hand brake. Sometimes called a brake foot board.
Switch on the brake pedal that disables cruise control when brakes are applied. ( Detroit )
A combination of one or more brakes and the means of operation and control.
BRAKE SYSTEM APPLICATION & BRAKING TIME OR DISTANCE (Stopping Time or Distance)
The time elapsed or the distance traveled between the instant or point at which the braking system is actuated and the instant or point at which the vehicle or combination comes to rest.
BRAKE SYSTEM APPLICATION TIME OR DISTANCE
The time elapsed or distance traveled between the instant or point at which the driver starts to move the braking controls and the instant or point of first retardation by the brakes.
BRAKE VALVE (air brake)
The valve by which the engineer operates the brakes. The proper name is engineers brake valve.
An iron wheel attached to the upper end of the brake shaft which is manually turned to apply the brakes.
Secondary chassis brakes independent in application from service brake. Used for parking the vehicle and for controlling it when the service brake is incapacitated.
Brake device using engine compression pressure as retarding medium.
Primary brake system for stopping vehicle.
Brake device using engine exhaust back pressure as retarding medium.
The distance through which brakes are applied to slow a vehicle; the shortest distance in which a vehicle can be stopped by braking from a specified speed on a particular surface; the distance from application of brakes to collision. See total stopping distance.
BRAKING SKID MARK
See skid mark.
The time required to traverse the braking distance.
Negative wheel torque.
Telegraph operator, whose sending instruments are made of brass.
To separate a composite load into individual shipments and route them to different destinations
BREAK BULK POINT OR TERMINAL
A place where a composite load is separated into individual shipments and routed to different destinations
BREAK THE UNIT
(Slang) Uncouple the tractor from the trailer.
The equipment added to a tractor or trailer brake system which safeguards the air supply on leading units and automatically applies the brakes on any trailer which accidentally become separated.
The distance between one axle and another, or between two sets of axles. Used in some states to ascertain the permissible gross weight for the vehicle. Also called spread. See spread tandem.
A formula used to determine the maximum gross weight permissible on any group of axles.
Brinell Hardness refers to a scale used to designate the degree of hardness possessed by a substance. Brinell Hardness is measured by pressing a ball into a metal by use of a calibrated machine and measuring the force which it takes to indent the material. The test itself is called a Brinell Hardness Test and the machine used for the test is called a Brinell Hardness Tester.
A "Brinell mark" is a mark or Souse in metal which is made by another piece of metal or rd object. Such marks are helpful in accident reconstructs (to diagnose ..e direction of forces and the cause of failures. The use of the terminology "Brinell mark" comes about by analogy with the indentation made by the ball in a Brinell Hardness test.
Brinelling is a term which refers to indentations in ú material caused by impact or contact with a hard object. The term arises from the so-called Brinell Hardness Test. which uses a rounded device to deform the surface of a material whose hardness is to be tested. However indentations from any object not necessarily associated with the hardness testing are often called "brinelling."
Brittle fracture is the fracture of a part under load with little or no yielding. It is a term used in the diagnosis of metal failures in the course of accident reconstruction.
BROAD GAGE (track)
When the distance between the heads of the rails is greater than 4' 9". See narrow gage, standard gage and gage of track.
A print that is brown in color and somewhat transparent, thus allowing additional prints to be made from it. Also known as "Van Dyke" (tradename) or Sepia.
Fine, directional, disruption of a smooth surface. Usually done on aluminum, stainless steel, chrome plate, but can be simulated in plastic.
A rough preliminary trace of test results (I.e., injury criteria).
A combination consisting of a tractor and two semi trailers, the second trailer coupled to the first trailer by use of a fifth wheel, which is mounted directly behind the cargo body on the lead semi-trailer.
British thermal unit.
Individual seat, often contoured so as to provide lateral support.
A switch located in the seat belt buckle which sense the condition of the belts (fastened or unfastened).
When used in an engineering sense a structure is laid to buckle when compressive loads on it cause the structure to exhibit large deflections which constitute the failure.
BUILDING OR BASE
Fixture used to locate underbody assembly side frame, front end, rear end and roof assembly.
Freight not in packages or containers.
A metal or wooden device located on the back of the tractor or on the front of the trailer to keep loads from sifting forward and going through cab of tractor. Sometimes called a header board.
A flat car with adjustable bulk heads at each end of the car, used for plywood and wall board ect.
An indentation of the panel surface caused by poor die surface fit.
Displace a junior man (with less seniority) on an existing position.
An elastic member which increases the wheel rate toward the end of the compression travel. The bump stop may also act to limit the compression travel.
(BID) A crash detector mounted in the front bumper which provides an early ACRS actual signal.
A brace post or block piece at the end of a stub track to prevent rolling cars from going off the ends of the rails. See car stop.
The accumulation and tender of cars for loading or unloading in excess of orders or contrary to customary schedules.
A Diesel unit without a cab and without complete operating controls. Usually equipped with hostler controls for independent operating at terminals.
Structural cross-members forming bed for logs on logging truck.
BUREAU OF MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY (BMCS)
A part of the Federal Highway Administration, which is one of several administrations within the US. Department of Transportation that issues the Motor Carrier Safety Regulations (FMCSRs).
Burnishing is the reconditioning of brake linings by repeated stops under controlled conditions.
Any motor vehicle designed to carry more than ten passengers and used for transporting persons, other than a taxi cab, designed to transport persons for compensation.
A cylindrical metal sleeve inserted into a machine part for reducing the effect of friction on moving parts or for decreasing the diameter of a hole.
Conventional automobile configuration as differentiated from a fast-back. Also termed notchback.
The area on a tire between the edge of the tread and the sidewall.
Caterpillar User's Manual